Patrick R Hof, MD
img_Patrick R Hof
PROFESSOR | Neuroscience
PROFESSOR | Ophthalmology
PROFESSOR | Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine
Research Topics
Aging, Alzheimer's Disease, Anatomy, Autism, Brain, Brain Imaging, Cerebral Cortex, Comparative Anatomy, Demyelination, Epilepsy, Evolution, Glutamate (NMDA & AMPA) Receptors, Hippocampus, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Memory, Mental Retardation, Morphometrics, Neural Networks, Neuro-degeneration/protection, Prefrontal Cortex, Quantitative Neuroanatomy, Synapses, Systems Neuroscience
Multi-Disciplinary Training Area
Neuroscience [NEU]
Specific Clinical/Research Interest:
Experimental neuropathology, neurodegenerative disorders, brain aging; Functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, comparative neuroanatomy; Computer-assisted morphometry, stereology, microscopy; Magnetic resonance microscopy, functional brain imaging

Current students: Selena In (MS)
Merina Varghese, PhD (Assistant Professor)
Carmen Freire Cobo, PhD (Senior Scientist)
Nicole Ackermans, PhD (Postdoctoral Fellow)
Research Personnel: Bridget Wicinski, Jessie Laffey

Summary of Research Studies:
Our research is directed towards the study of selective neuronal vulnerability in dementing illnesses using classical neuropathological as well as modern quantitative immunohistochemical methods. We intend to develop a quantitative, detailed and cohesive definition of neuronal susceptibility to degeneration in the cerebral cortex, by extending data on Alzheimer disease to other dementing disorders as well as animal models of age-related illnesses, and by defining the key neurochemical and morphological characteristics linked to relative vulnerability (or resistance to degeneration) of identified neuronal populations. The regional and laminar distribution in the cerebral cortex of specific neuronal populations is investigated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, and quantitatively compared to Alzheimer disease and control brains. In addition, a detailed study of brains from aged patients with no records of neurological and psychiatric disorders is performed in order to define further the limits of normal aging in the brain.

We employ advanced microscopy, high field magnetic resonance imaging, stereologic, and modeling approaches to develop an accurate quantitative assessment of such pathological changes in a region- and layer-specific manner. Neuronal morphology is analyzed morphometrically using intracellular injection of hippocampal and neocortical neurons coupled with computerized reconstruction to assess the degree to which the accumulation of pathologic markers causes dendritic atrophy and spine loss in different subtypes of neocortical pyramidal cells subserving cortical circuits critical for memory and cognition. The characterization of such vulnerable neurons and circuits is fundamental to the design of therapeutic strategies aiming at their protection or rescue. Similar approaches are applied to the neuropathology of schizophrenia and autism. We are also participating in a large-scale project with the Brain Initiative Cell Census Network to develop an integrated quantitative atlas of cortical cell types registered to high-resolution imaging datasets, using multiplexing and large-specimen light-sheet imaging approaches.

Finally we are investigating mammalian brain evolution with a focus on cetaceans and great apes. These studies have led us to identify specific neuronal types in parts of the cerebral cortex known to be involved in social awareness, judgment, and attention that can be considered as markers of adaptive mechanisms and functions in response to particular ecological pressure.

Visit Dr. Patrick Hof's Laboratory of Neuromorphology for more information.

MD, University of Geneva School of Medicine

The Scripps Research Institute


Selected Publications

Late chronic local inflammation, synaptic alterations, vascular remodeling and arteriovenous malformations in the brains of male rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast overpressures. Miguel A. Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Dylan Pryor, Georgina S. Perez Garcia, Gissel M. Perez, Rania Abutarboush, Usmah Kawoos, Seth Hogg, Benjamin Ache, Allison Sowa, Timothy Tetreault, Merina Varghese, David G. Cook, Carolyn W. Zhu, Susan J. Tappan, William G.M. Janssen, Patrick R. Hof, Stephen T. Ahlers, Gregory A. Elder. Acta neuropathologica communications

A guide to the BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network data ecosystem. Michael Hawrylycz, Maryann E. Martone, Giorgio A. Ascoli, Jan G. Bjaalie, Hong Wei Dong, Satrajit S. Ghosh, Jesse Gillis, Ronna Hertzano, David R. Haynor, Patrick R. Hof, Yongsoo Kim, Ed Lein, Yufeng Liu, Jeremy A. Miller, Partha P. Mitra, Eran Mukamel, Lydia Ng, David Osumi-Sutherland, Hanchuan Peng, Patrick L. Ray, Raymond Sanchez, Aviv Regev, Alex Ropelewski, Richard H. Scheuermann, Shawn Zheng Kai Tan, Carol L. Thompson, Timothy Tickle, Hagen Tilgner, Merina Varghese, Brock Wester, Owen White, Hongkui Zeng, Brian Aevermann, David Allemang, Seth Ament, Thomas L. Athey, Cody Baker, Katherine S. Baker, Pamela M. Baker, Anita Bandrowski, Samik Banerjee, Prajal Bishwakarma, Ambrose Carr, Min Chen, Roni Choudhury, Jonah Cool, Heather Creasy, Florence D'Orazi, Kylee Degatano, Benjamin Dichter, Song Lin Ding, Tim Dolbeare, Joseph R. Ecker, Rongxin Fang, Jean Christophe Fillion-Robin, Timothy P. Fliss, James Gee, Tom Gillespie, Nathan Gouwens, Guo Qiang Zhang, Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Nomi L. Harris, Brian R. Herb, Houri Hintiryan, Gregory Hood, Sam Horvath, Bingxing Huo, Dorota Jarecka, Shengdian Jiang, Farzaneh Khajouei, Elizabeth A. Kiernan, Huseyin Kir, Lauren Kruse, Changkyu Lee, Boudewijn Lelieveldt, Yang Li, Hanqing Liu, Lijuan Liu, Anup Markuhar, James Mathews, Kaylee L. Mathews, Chris Mezias, Michael I. Miller, Tyler Mollenkopf, Shoaib Mufti, Christopher J. Mungall, Joshua Orvis, Maja A. Puchades, Lei Qu, Joseph P. Receveur, Bing Ren, Nathan Sjoquist, Staats, Daniel Tward, Cindy T.J. van Velthoven, Quanxin Wang, Fangming Xie, Hua Xu, Zizhen Yao, Zhixi Yun, Yun Renee Zhang, W. Jim Zheng, Brian Zingg. PLoS Biology

The association of astrogliosis and microglial activation with aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology in the chimpanzee brain. Melissa K. Edler, Emily L. Munger, Hannah Maycon, William D. Hopkins, Patrick R. Hof, Chet C. Sherwood, Mary Ann Raghanti. Journal of Neuroscience Research

View All Publications

Physicians and scientists on the faculty of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai often interact with pharmaceutical, device and biotechnology companies to improve patient care, develop new therapies and achieve scientific breakthroughs. In order to promote an ethical and transparent environment for conducting research, providing clinical care and teaching, Mount Sinai requires that salaried faculty inform the School of their relationships with such companies.

Below are financial relationships with industry reported by Dr. Hof during 2022 and/or 2023. Please note that this information may differ from information posted on corporate sites due to timing or classification differences.


  • Wiley-Blackwell

Mount Sinai's faculty policies relating to faculty collaboration with industry are posted on our website. Patients may wish to ask their physician about the activities they perform for companies.